2017-01-03 09:00:00 来源：新东方在线发表评论
The Visually Impaired Person
Visual impairment (损害) carries with it a reduced or restricted ability to travel through one's physical and social environment until adequate orientation and mobility skills have been established. Because observational skills are more limited, self-control within the immediate surroundings is limited. The visual impaired person is less able to anticipate hazardous situations or obstacles to avoid.
Orientation refers to the mental map one has of one’s surroundings and to the relationship between self and that environment. The mental map is the best generated by moving through the environment and piecing together relationships, object by object, in an organized approach. With little of no visual feedback to reinforce this mental map, a visually impaired person must rely on memory for key landmarks and other clues Landmarks and clues enable visually impaired person to affirm their position in space.
Mobility, on the other hand, is theability to travel safely and efficiently from one point to another within one’s physical and social environment. Good orientation skills are necessary to good mobility skills. Once visually impaired students learn to travel safely as pedestrians (行人) they also need to learn to use public transportation to become as independent as possible.
To meet the expanding needs and demands of the visually impaired person, there is a sequence of instruction that begins during the preschool years and may continue after high school. Many visually impaired children lack adequate concepts regarding time and space or objects and events in their environment. During the early years much attention is focused on the development of some fundamental concepts, such as inside or outside, in front of or behind, fast or slow, movement of traffic, the variety of intersections, elevators or escalators, and so forth. These concepts are essential to safe, efficient travel through familiar and unfamiliar settings, first within buildings, then in residential neighborhoods, and finally in business communities.
36 What is the author mainly talking about in the passage?
A Visual impairment and memory.
B The visually impaired person’s physical and social environment.
C Mental development of the visually impaired person.
D Orientation and mobility of the visually impaired person.
37 The visually impaired person’s position in space .
A is not determined by memory but by physical landmarks and clues
B is located in relation to other items in his mental map
C enables him to construct the mental map
D reinforces the mental map of his surroundings
38 Mobility skills which the visually impaired person islearning refer to the ability .
A to travel as a dependent tourist
B to travel as a pedestrian with a company
C to travel as a pedestrian and a passenger
D to travel within the safe physical and social environment
39 In the passage, the author insists that .
A visually impaired children go to school for survival
B the needs and demands of visually impaired children expand
D preschool children receive the instruction in the concepts of time and space or objects and events
40 How can we increase the visually impaired person馏 ability to travel through his physical and social environment?
A By helping him develop adequate orientation and mobility skills.
B By teaching him to learn observational skills.
C By warning him of hazardous situations or obstacles.
D By improving his visual ability.
37 B 视觉障碍者在空间的位置：A不是靠记忆确定，而是靠物体标记和线索确定;B靠与他大脑中的其他物体的相对位置关系确定;C使他能够勾画 出大脑中的图;D强化环境在他大脑中所形成的图。
38 C 视觉障碍者学习的移动技巧是指哪种能力：A靠别人的帮助旅行;B在陪伴下行走;C作为行人和乘客走动;D在安全的物质和社会环境中走动。
39 C 本段作者坚持认为：A有视觉障碍的儿童上学学习生存技能;B有视觉障碍的儿童的需要进一步扩大;C有视觉障碍的儿童获得安全移动的基本概念;D学前儿童在时空、物体和事件等概念上接受训练。
40 A 我们如何才能增加视觉障碍者在物质和社会环境中的活动能力?A通过帮助他获得足够的定位和移动能力;B通过教他学会观察技能;C通过警告他危险情况和障碍物;D通过改进其视觉能力。
|零基础班||综合A 综合B 综合C 理工A 理工B 理工C 卫生A 卫生B 卫生C|
|非零基础班||综合A 综合B 综合C 理工A 理工B 理工C 卫生A 卫生B 卫生C|
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