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2016年职称英语考试真题及答案(卫生类A级)

2016-03-26 11:02:00 来源:新东方在线发表评论

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2016年职称英语考试真题及答案(卫生类A级)

  阅读判断

  Deforestation and Desertification(沙漠化)

  The Sahel zone lies between the Sahara desert and the fertile savannahs(热带大草原)of northern Nigeria and South Sudan. The word sahel comes from Arabic and means marginal or transitional ,and this is a good description of the semi-arid(半干旱) lands, which occupy much of the Western African countries of Mail, Mauritania, Niger ,and Chad.

  Unfortunately, over the last century the Sahara desert has steadily crept southwards eating into once productive Sahel lands. United Nations surveys show that over 70 percent of the dry land in agriculture use in Africa has deteriorate dover the last 30 years. Droughts have become more severe, the most recent lasting over twenty years in parts of the Sahel region. The same process of desertification is taking place across southern Africa as the Kalahari desert advances into Botswana and parts of South Africa.

  One of the major causes of this desert advance is poor agricultural land use, driven by the pressures of increasing population. Overgrazing一 keeping too many farm animals on the land一means that grasses and other plants cannot recover, and scarce water supplies are exhausted. Over cultivation一 trying to grow too many crops on poor land一 results in the soil becoming even less fertile and drier, and beginning to break up. Soil erosion (侵蚀) follows, and the land turns into desert.

  Another cause of desertification is loss of tree cover. Trees are cut down for use as fuel and to clear land for agricultural use. Tree roots help to bind the soil together, to conserve moisture, and to provide a habitat for her plants and animals. When trees are cut down, the soil begins to dry and loosen, wind and rain erosion increase, other plant species die, and eventually the fertile top soil may be almost entirely lost, leaving only bare rock and dust.

  The effects of loss of topsoil and increased drought are irreversible. They are, however, preventable. Careful conservation of tree cover and sustainable agricultural land use have been shown to halt deterioration of soils and lessen the effects of shortage of rainfall. One project in Kita in south-west Malifunded by UNDP has involved local communities in sustainable management offorest, while at the same time providing a viable(有活力的)agricultural economy. This may be a model for similar projects in other West African countries.

  36.【题干】The Sahel zone is an area which _____.

  A.is covered with sad and grass

  B.has a long history

  C.occupies much of South Nigeria

  D.belongs to Sudan

  37. 【题干】What is the situation about the desertification in Africa?

  A.The deserts are replaced with grasslands

  B.The deserts are expanding

  C.the deserts are moving northwards

  D.the deserts are being deserted

  38. 【题干】The word "deteriorated" in paragraph2 means _____.

  【选项】

  A.deepened

  B.suffered

  C.slipped

  D.worsened

  39. 【题干】What is the root cause of desertification?

  A.poor farming

  B.overpopulation

  C.radical climate change

  D.disappearance of rare plant species

  40. 【题干】In order to prevent desertification, the author proposes _____.

  A.making good use of international aids

  B.developing a sustainable agricultural economy

  C.gaining international support

  D.converting agricultural land into forest

本文关键字: 2016职称英语卫生a真题 职称英语卫生a答案

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