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2014中石油职称英语选读文章:Cultural Taboos

2014-01-10 19:19:00 来源:新东方在线论坛发表评论

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  Cultural Taboos文化禁忌

  1. The speed and convenience of modern travel means that destinations that used to take a long time to travel to can now be reached quickly and easily. Even though "faraway" countries may now seem closer thanks to air travel, they may still be different from your home country. Therefore, it is important to adapt your behavior so that you don't insult or offend the local people. The following are some fundamental rules that will make communication easier and your trip more enjoyable.

  1.现代旅行的速度和便捷意味着过去需要花很长时间才能抵达的目的地现在可以又快又轻松地到达。尽管由于可以乘坐飞机旅行“遥远的国家似乎更近了,但是它们也许仍然与你自己的国家有所不同。因此,改善你的行为从而不冒犯或不得罪当地人非常重要。以下几条基本规则将会使交际变得更容易,使你的旅行更愉快。

  2. First, never raise your voice in order to make yourself understood. If you do not know the word for something in the local language, or cannot make yourself understood verbally, try drawing a picture or pointing to an object. Remember, though, that pointing directly at a person can be highly offensive in some cultures. If you have to point something out, do so by gesturing towards the object, with the palm of your hand flat, facing upward, and your fingers outstretched. Before you travel, try learning some basic words or phrases of the local language. Most useful are those that express gratitude and politeness such as words for please, thank you, and may I, as well as basic greetings.

  2.首先,千万不要为了让别人听懂你的话语而提高嗓门高声大叫。如果你不知道用当地语言中的某个词表达你的意思,或者不能用言语让别人明白你的意思,试着画张图,或者指向某个物体。然而,务必记住,在某些文化中,直接指向某个人可能是十分无礼的。如果你得指出某个东西,打手势指向那个物体,手掌摊平,掌面朝上,手指尽可能伸展。旅行之前,设法学会一些本地语言的基本词语。最实用的是那些表达感激之情和客气礼貌的词语,比如“劳驾”,“谢谢你”,“我可不可以”,以及基本的问候用语。

  First, never raise your voice in order to【为了】 make yourself understood. If you do not know the word for something in the local language, or cannot make yourself understood verbally, try drawing a picture or pointing to an object. Remember, though【虽然,尽管】, that pointing directly at a person can be highly offensive in some cultures. If you have to point something out, do so by gesturing towards the object, with the palm of your hand flat, facing upward, and your fingers outstretched. Before you travel, try learning some basic words or phrases of the local language. Most useful are those that express gratitude and politeness such as words for please, thank you, and may I, as well as basic greetings.

  3. Second, consider the main religion of the country you plan to visit and read about any taboos related to clothing, especially if you plan to visit places that are considered sacred. As a precaution, bring conservative clothes, such as shirts or T-shirts that cover your shoulders, and long trousers. Avoid topics of conversation that you think may be sensitive. If a topic is sensitive in your own culture, it will more than likely be the same in other cultures. Feel free to show interest in the history and customs of the place you are visiting, but don't ask too many questions about why things are done in a certain way; you may of Fend the local people. Keep in mind that in many cultures, displaying affection in public is considered taboo. Kissing on the street or in public places is unacceptable behavior and should be avoided. If you are unsure of how to behave, watch the local people and copy them-if they don't behave in a certain way, you probably shouldn't either.

  3.其次,认真考虑你决定去旅游的那个国家的主要宗教,并通过读书了解关于穿着的禁忌,如果计划去游览圣地,尤其要获悉这方面的禁忌。携带诸如覆盖肩膀的衬衫或短袖汗衫和长裤之类的保守衣服,以备不时之需。回避你认为可能敏感的话题。如果某个话题在你自己的文化里是敏感的话题,那么这个话题在其他文化里也很可能同样如此。毫无拘束地表现出你对旅游目的地的历史和风俗饶有兴趣,但不要就约定俗成的事情提出太多疑问,提问太多,也许会得罪当地人。牢牢记住,根据很多国家的文化习俗,当众表现爱慕亲密之情被视为禁忌。在街道上或在公共场所接吻是不可接受的行为,应该加以避免。要是对行为表现方式没有把握,观察当地人并模仿他们。如果他们没有某种行为方式,你也许也应该避免。

  4. Finally, if you are travelling on business or plan to stay with a host family and you wish to take a gift, do some research. The idea of the perfect gift varies greatly from country to country, and one of the easiest ways to offend somebody is to give the wrong gift. In China, it is taboo to give clocks and fans. The Chinese word for "fan" has a similar sound to the word for "separation", while the sound for "clock" is similar to that of "death." In Japan, gifts should never be given in sets of "four", as the sound of the word "four" in Japanese is similar to the sound of the word meaning "death."

  4.最后,如果你正处于商务之行,或者决定暂居于主人之家,想携带一件礼物,那么就该调查研究一番。礼物是否完全合适,各国人们看法不一。送错礼物是最容易冒犯人的。在中国,赠送时钟或扇子是忌讳之事。汉语单词“扇”与“散”谐音,“送钟”与“送终”谐音。在日本,赠送礼物永远不应该四件成套,因为日文的“四”和“死”是谐音。

  5. The opening of gifts is also treated very differently around the world. In many Western countries, do not be surprised if your hosts immediately tear the wrapping paper from a gift in great excitement. They will then tell you how wonderful the gift is, even if they do not like it! In most Asian countries, it is considered impolite to open gifts in front of the gift-giver for fear of offending the person.

  5.世界各地打开礼物的方式也大不相同。在很多西方国家,如果主人非常兴奋地立即撕开礼物的包装纸,不要感到惊讶。他们会告诉你礼物多么令人惊喜,即便不喜欢,他们也会赞不绝口!在很多亚洲国家,当着礼物赠送者的面打开礼物被认为是失礼的举动,因为人们担心当面打开礼物会让客人难堪。

  6. Wherever you go in the world, always be tolerant of the local customs. Avoid being critical; try instead to show respect for the values of the country you are in, even if you do not necessarily agree with them.

  6.无论到世界上什么地方去,要时时处处宽容地对待当地习俗。避免评头论足,采取批评的态度,要尽量对你所在国家的价值观表示尊重,即使你未必赞成。


本文关键字: 2014 中石油 职称英语

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