新东方在线网络课堂 职称英语 新东方在线 > 职称英语 > 职称英语中石油 > 复习资料 > 正文

2014中石油职称英语选读文章:The Principles of International Trade

2014-01-05 19:01:00 来源:新东方在线论坛发表评论


  The Principles of International Trade国际贸易原理 

  1. International trade is the exchange of goods and services produced in one country for goods and services produced in another country. There are several reasons why international trade exists.


  2. The distribution of natural resources around the world is somewhat haphazard: some nations possess natural deposits in excess of their own requirements while other nations have none. For example, Britain has large reserves of coal but lacks many minerals such as nickel, copper, aluminum, etc., whereas the Arab states have vast oil deposits but little else. In the cultivation of natural products climate plays a decisive role. Some products will only grow in tropical climates whereas others, such as citrus fruits, require a Mediterranean climate. Moreover, some nations are unable to produce sufficient quantities of a particular product to satisfy a large home demand. For example, Britain does not produce enough wheat to meet the needs of its population. These are the reasons why international trade first began.


  3. With the development of manufacturing and technology, there arose another incentive for nations to exchange their products. It was found that it made economic sense for a nation to specialize in certain activities and produce those goods for which it had the most advantages, and to exchange those goods for the products of other nations which had advantages in different fields. This trade is based on the principle of comparative advantage.


  4. The theory of comparative advantage, also called the comparative cost theory, was developed by David Ricardo and other economists in the nineteenth century. It points out that trade between countries can be profitable for all. Even if one of the countries can produce every commodity more cheaply, as long as there are minor relative differences in the efficiency of producing a commodity even the poor country can have a comparative advantage in producing it. The paradox is best illustrated by this traditional example: the best lawyer in town is also the best typist in town. Since this lawyer cannot afford to give up precious time from legal affairs, a typist is hired who may be less efficient than the lawyer in both legal and typing matters. But the typist's comparative disadvantage is least in typing. Therefore, the typist has a relative comparative advantage in typing.


  5. This principle is the basis of specialization into trades and occupations. At the same time, complete specialization may never occur even when it is economically advantageous. For strategic or domestic reasons, a country may continue to produce goods to which it does not have an advantage. The benefits of specialization may also be affected by transport costs: goods and raw materials have to be transposed around the world and the cost of the transport narrows the limits between which it will prove profitable to trade. Another impediment to the free flow of goods between nations is the possible introduction of artificial barriers to trade, such as tariffs or quotas.


  6. In addition to visible trade, which involves the import and export of goods and merchandise, there is also invisible trade, which involves the exchange of services between nations.


  7. Nations such as Greece and Norway have large maritime fleets and provide transportation service. This is a kind of invisible trade. When an exporter arranges shipment, he rents space in the cargo compartment of a ship.


  8. The prudent exporter purchases insurance for his cargo's voyage. While at sea, a cargo is vulnerable to many dangers. Thus, insurance is another service in which some nations specialize. Great Britain, because of the development of Lloyd' of London, is a leading exporter of this service, earning fees for insuring other nations' foreign trade.


  9. Some nations possess little in the way of exportable commodities or manufactured goods, but they have a mild and sunny climate. During the winter, the Bahamas attract large numbers of tourists who spend money for hotel accommodation, meals, taxis, and so on. Tourism, therefore, is another form of invisible trade.


  10. Invisible trade can be as important to some nations as the export of raw materials or commodities is to others. In both cases, the nations earn money to buy necessities.


本文关键字: 2014 中石油 职称英语






1,"新东方在线"上的内容,包括文章、资料、资讯等, 本网注明"稿件来源:新东方在线"的,其版权 均为"新东方在线"或北京新东方迅程网络科技有限公司所有 ,任何公司、媒体、网站或个人未经授权不得转载、链接、转贴或以其他方式使用。已经得到 "新东方在线"许可 的媒体、网站,在使用时必须注明"稿件来源:新东方",违者本网站将依法追究责任。

2, "新东方在线" 未注明"稿件来源:新东方"的 文章、资料、资讯等 均为转载稿,本网站转载出于传递更多信息之目的,并不意味着赞同其观点或证实其内容的真实性。如其他媒体、网站或个人从本网站下载使用,必须保留本网站注明的"稿件来源",并自负版权等法律责任。如擅自篡改为 " 稿件来源:新东方 " ,本网站将依法追究其法律责任。


  • 2017职称英语直播答疑


实用 • 工具

交流 • 下载

  • 职称英语备考资料下载
  • 职称英语备考资料下载
  • 职称英语备考资料下载
  • 职称英语复习必备



2017职称英语改编题串讲 w 44分35秒
1 2017职称英语改编题串讲
2017职称英语阅读理解答题技巧 w 26分32秒
2 2017职称英语阅读理解答题技巧
2017职称英语完形填空答题技巧提炼 w 33分35秒
3 2017职称英语完形填空答题技巧提炼
2017职称英语通关中英文朗读篇 w 05分13秒
4 2017职称英语通关中英文朗读篇
2017年职称英语语法考点重点解析 w 21分17秒
5 2017年职称英语语法考点重点解析